Recently, we can observe a shift – or let us term it a “rediscovery” – of cultural management approaches with regard to cultural politics in rural areas as well as in urban settings. This rediscovery highlights cultural managers as the central players within cultural development processes. It recognizes a new need for the reorganization of cultural infrastructure that is deeply rooted in socio-environmental changes such as globalization, demographic and technological change, and financial crises. What cultural managers actually do is to screen, explore and finally reorder the existing network structures of a given field and facilitate the implementation of new networks. Hence, it was only a matter of time to introduce basic network theoretical thoughts into the academic field of cultural management and cultural sociology research.
The article gives an overview about the contemporary state of the art with regard to recent changes in cultural management approaches. In addition, it will provide the concept of cultural managers as ‘masters of interspaces’ who need to be empowered – not only by formal institutions, but also by local stakeholders. In this way, they can successfully fulfil their task and contribute to fruitful transformation processes within the cultural field. ‘Interspace management’ is the most important skill that modern cultural managers need to obtain. Here, network theory comes into play. Basic network theories are used to lay a foundation for a better understanding of the mechanisms that underpin cultural interventions. This starts from trust building and ends with the transformation of structural holes into weak ties. Here, five different roles that cultural managers can exercise during their mission are introduced. At the end of the article, an empirical case study of a cultural development process in the German state Thuringia is introduced in order to give an example for the importance of network theories and methodologies connected to cultural management.
Urban arts policies have been studied frequently by urban scholars but shifts in the respective usage of the arts have been neglected. Frequently, the discourse of the present on how the arts are employed for urban development prevails, tuning out – incorrectly – how this discourse has been shifted over the years. To fill this gap, the author interviewed local experts and compared their statements on the topic of arts and culture in Baltimore’s urban development over a period of more than twenty years, in 1988, 2004, and 2010. How did artists and arts managers, urban planners and urban politicians view the arts as a tool for Baltimore’s urban development during these years? The study uses a qualitative case study approach. As such it has involved an in-depth exploration of the strategic usages of arts and culture in urban contexts. It is a result of the study that the meaning of arts and culture as a factor for urban development has changed considerably between 1988 and 2010. Whereas this meaning was “elevating the masses by the arts” in 1988, it was “the arts as key for the creative city” in 2004, and “nurturing the creative edge of artists” in 2010.
Der Essay gibt einen Überblick der verschiedenen Aufgabenbereiche und der zentralen Herausforderungen an Kulturmanagement in internationalen und interkulturellen Kontexten. Eine Internationalisierung ist vor allem in drei Aufgabenbereichen von Kulturmanagement virulent: 1. Kulturmanagement in globalen kultur- und kreativwirtschaftlichen Bereichen wie in der Film- oder Musikindustrie, im internationalen Festivalmanagement oder im Kulturtourismus; 2. Kulturmanagement als Teil von Cultural Diplomacy und Kulturentwicklungsplanung zur Unterstützung von Ländern in Umbruchphasen; 3. Kulturmanagement, das ein v. a. durch Migration verändertes und diversifiziertes Kulturleben im eigenen Land moderiert und organisiert.
Diskutiert wird die Frage, inwiefern kulturmanageriales Handeln durch universelle betriebswirtschaftliche Logiken geprägt wird oder inwiefern sich länder- und kulturraumspezifische ökonomische, politische, soziale Besonderheiten auf Strategien und Rollenmodelle im Kulturmanagement auswirken. Abschließend werden Überlegungen angestellt, wie Kulturmanagement-Studiengänge auf die Veränderungen und Herausforderungen durch Internationalisierung reagieren können.
The essay gives an overview on different fields and functions and main challenges in arts/cultural management operating in international and intercultural contexts. Three main fields can be identified: 1. Arts management in global fields of creative industries like in the film and music industry, in international festival management or in cultural tourism; 2. Cultural management as part of cultural diplomacy and cultural planning in developing countries; 3. Cultural management as intercultural change- and diversity management within one´s own country to deal with changes in cultural life due to migration.
The article discusses the question if arts management follows a global standardized management concept or in which way arts management strategies are influenced by country specific economic, political and social conditions and role models in arts management. Finally it suggests some ideas how academic arts management programs could deal with new challenges due to internationalization.
When dilettantism rose in the 18th century, it was an expression of investigative curiosity and creative passion beyond the existing scientific canon. The innovative drive of dilettantes was soon afterwards belittled by the establishment and disappeared into the equation dilettante = charlatan, used until today. The pioneering spirit of dilettantism, however, re-materialized in the professional amateur (pro-am), a societal character that turns ideas and hobbies into activities of quasi-professional standard. Especially in the arts, pro-ams are numerous and carry a significant potential for social participation and innovation. This essay reflects on how cultural managers could take a role in recognizing, promoting and fostering the pro-am potential in the arts and in society.
Significant international political discourse in the field of education and culture (UNESCO, EU, IFACCA) calls for advances to be made towards more coordinated and complementary public policies. Innovative international projects have pointed the way forward. (Creative Partnership: <http://www.creativitycultureeducation.org/creative-partnerships>) Unfortunately, while they may have succeeded in producing examples of good practice, they have not gone on to become standard practice in Catalonia. The aim of our investigation is to identify the factors responsible for divergence – and the difficulties involved in promoting convergence – between education and culture by studying the preambles of laws between 1980 and 2010 and the opinions of qualified professionals and experts. Our investigation confirms that there is a lack of fluidity in the dialog between cultural and educational policies in Catalonia. However, our research has provided evidence that cultural education can be systematized in order to improve synergy in future policies. The principle strategies involve (i) the reinforcement of educational local issues and the challenge of cultural citizenship; (ii) coordinated action aimed at developing cultural competencies while taking into consideration the appreciation of diversity, media education and intercultural dialog and, (iii) the promotion of creativity and the exploration of training in expressive potential in all kinds of artistic languages.
This paper focuses on how film festivals research can be epistemologically framed and methodologically designed. ‘How can a film festival be observed?’ and ‘how can a festival secure its own survival and preserve itself over the time?’ are here the necessaries starting questions, for it urges one to look at how and where a festival is formed, in the moment when it takes shape. Drawing from the long story of Festival dei Popoli – International Documentary Film Festival, this paper aims to demonstrate that it is possible to identify three distinct objects of analysis: practices, narratives and autopoiesis, corresponding to three different but complementary ways of observing festivals (as interactions, narrations and organizations). This theoretical and methodological framework, inspired by systems theory, narratives and interaction analysis, can permit an uncommon observational perspective that is able to question what is often taken for granted.